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Metabolic responsiveness to training depends on insulin sensitivity and protein content of exosomes in insulin-resistant males

C E L L  B I O L O G Y

Maria Apostolopoulou, Lucia Mastrototaro, Sonja Hartwig, Dominik Pesta, Klaus Straßburger, Elisabetta de Filippo, Tomas Jelenik, Yanislava Karusheva,
Sofiya Gancheva, Daniel Markgraf, Christian Herder, K. Sreekumaran Nair,
Andreas S. Reichert , Stefan Lehr, Karsten Müssig, Hadi Al-Hasani,
Julia Szendroedi , Michael Roden

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), but its impact on metabolism remains unclear. We hypothesized that 12-week HIIT increases insulin sensitivity in males with or without type 2 diabetes [T2D and NDM (nondiabetic humans)]. However, despite identically higher VO2max, mainly insulin-resistant (IR) persons (T2D and IR NDM) showed distinct alterations of circulating small extracellular vesicles (SEVs) along with lower inhibitory metabolic (protein kinase Cε activity) or inflammatory (nuclear factor κB) signaling in muscle of T2D or IR NDM, respectively. This is related to the specific alterations in SEV proteome reflecting down-regulation of the phospholipase C pathway (T2D) and up-regulated antioxidant capacity (IR NDM). Thus, SEV cargo may con-tribute to modulating the individual metabolic responsiveness to exercise training in humans.

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Ανατολή Πετρίδου

Η Ανατολή Πετρίδου είναι εργαστηριακό και διδακτικό προσωπικό στο Τμήμα Επιστήμης Φυσικής Αγωγής και Αθλητισμού (ΤΕΦΑΑ) Θεσσαλονίκης του Αριστοτέλειου Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλονίκης (ΑΠΘ) στο γνωστικό αντικείμενο «Εργαστηριακές εφαρμογές στην αξιολόγηση της βιολογικής απόδοσης του ανθρώπου». Είναι απόφοιτος του ΤΕΦΑΑ του ΑΠΘ και του Τμήματος Βιοχημείας και Βιοτεχνολογίας του Πανεπιστημίου Θεσσαλίας.

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Bisphenol A correlates with fewer retrieved oocytes in women with tubal factor infertility

Hormones (Athens) 2022 May 6. doi: 10.1007/s42000-022-00370-1. Online ahead of print.

Areti Mina, Georgios Boutzios, Ioannis Papoutsis, George Kaparos, Panagiotis Christopoulos, Eleni Kousta, Minas Mastrominas, Sotirios Athanaselis, George Mastorakos
PMID: 35524040, DOI: 10.1007/s42000-022-00370-1

Abstract: Purpose | Serum and urinary bisphenol A (BPA) concentrations have been associated negatively with the number of retrieved oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF). The impact of BPA upon women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and women with tubal factor infertility (TFI), following IVF, was investigated. To this purpose, associations among serum and urinary and follicular fluid (FF) BPA concentrations and the number of retrieved and fertilized oocytes and comparisons between pregnancy rates were evaluated. Methods | This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a university-affiliated assisted conception unit between January and November 2019, including 93 women of reproductive age (PCOS: 45; TFI: 48) following IVF. Unconjugated FF and serum BPA concentrations and total urinary BPA concentration were measured using a novel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The number of retrieved and fertilized oocytes and pregnancy rate were documented and evaluated. Results | The number of oocytes retrieved from PCOS women was greater than that of 21 TFI women, independently of BMI. Lower FF BPA concentrations were found in all PCOS women and in overweight/obese PCOS compared to TFI women (0.50, 0.38, and 1.13 ng/mL, respectively). In TFI women, FF BPA concentrations correlated negatively with the number of retrieved oocytes. Serum and FF and urinary BPA concentrations did not significantly affect the number of fertilized oocytes and pregnancy rate in both groups. Conclusion | FF BPA concentrations were lower in all PCOS women and in overweight/obese PCOS than in TFI women. In TFI women, FF BPA concentrations correlated negatively with retrieved oocytes. Confirmation of these findings might lead to moderation of use of BPA-containing products by women undergoing IVF.


Απονομή του τίτλου του επισκέπτη καθηγητή της Ιατρικής Σχολής ΕΚΠΑ

Το Δ.Π.Μ.Σ. «Έρευνα στη Γυναικεία Αναπαραγωγή» ανακοινώνει την απονομή του τίτλου του Επισκέπτη Καθηγητή της Ιατρικής Σχολής ΕΚΠΑ στους κάτωθι καθηγητές-συνεργάτες του προγράμματος:

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Uterine sparing management in patients with endometrial cancer: a narrative literature review

Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Maria Zisi, Dimitrios Zygouris, Orestis Tsonis, Sofia Papadimitriou, Mastorakos George, Sophia Kalantaridou& Minas Paschopoulos

Abstract: Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract. Approximately 25% of cases occur in premenopausal women, and up to 5% of cases occur in women who are younger than 40 years old. The survival rate in these cases is 99%; therefore, uterine-sparing management could be considered under strict criteria selection and the strong desire of the woman to preserve uterus and fertility. Diagnosis should be performed after a hysteroscopic biopsy instead of dilatation and curettage. The highest remission rate was achieved after combining a hysteroscopic resection with hormonal therapy compared to single hormonal treatment. The most common regiments are the following progestins: megestrol acetate (MA) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) taken orally with a daily dosage of 160 mg–320 mg for MA and 250 mg–600 mg for MP. Evaluations at three and six months could be performed by office endometrial biopsy and/or hysteroscopic directed biopsy especially in the presence of levonorgestrel intrauterine system, and in cases of remission, either a pregnancy attempt or maintenance therapy should be considered. After childbearing, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo–oophorectomy is recommended, whereas ovarian preservation could be considered depending on the patient’s age and whether they fulfil the strict criteria selection.

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Major histocompatibility complex(mhc) molecules identification in vaginal cells during menstrual cycle


Socrates Megoulas, Savvidi Amalia, Stelios Fiorentzis and Mihail Tziolas

Abstract: Causes of subfertility in women are under investigation, with the vaginal canal being the first barrier before the fertilization and implantation process. Although the mechanisms of protection of the allogeneic fetus from the maternal immune response seem to have a main role through the preimplantation period, they are not yet described in detail. There appears to be an important relation between them and the polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. However, it is unknown which are expressed in the vaginal canal cells and how they behave during the menstrual cycle. This clinical research aimed to prove the existence of these unusual MHC proteins in vaginal cells, especially during ovulation. We selected women of reproductive age in different menstrual cycle phases and collected vaginal samples. The samples then were processed with immunofluorescence protocol or ELISA protocol techniques. The protein molecules that were calculated are MHCI, MHCII, TCRa b, TCRg d. During ovulation, MHCII and TCRg d were expressed in higher numbers over MHCI and TCRa b (p=0.0461, p=0.0104), using immunofluorescence. Whereas using ELISA showed statistical significance only in the expression of TCRg d over TCRa b (p=0.0012). Managing to identify the existence of polymorphic molecules of the immune system in the vagina proves the immunological reaction starts taking place in the vagina, and there is possibly a relation between the immunosuppression mechanisms surrounding trophoblast implantation and early pregnancy success. As the research progresses, it is possible to trace those mechanisms back to subfertility cases.

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Η αναγκαιότητα της εξ αποστάσεως εκπαίδευσης και οι υποχρεώσεις που απορρέουν από αυτήν

Η εξ αποστάσεως εκπαίδευση συγκεντρώνοντας πλεονεκτήματα όπως ο μηδενισμός των αποστάσεων μεταξύ εκπαιδευτών και εκπαιδευομένων που βρίσκονται σε διαφορετικά μέρη προέκυψε ως αναγκαιότητα με την εμφάνιση και διατήρηση της πανδημίας του Covid19. Η εφαρμογή αυτής της  μεθόδου εκπαίδευσης την τρέχουσα περίοδο είναι ιδιαιτέρως σημαντική και αποτελεί ένα χρήσιμο εργαλείο για το οποιοδήποτε πρόγραμμα σπουδών και τους μαθησιακούς στόχους που αυτό επιθυμεί να επιτύχει στο κοινό στο οποίο απευθύνεται.

Βέβαια, η τηλεκπαίδευση σε καμία περίπτωση δεν μπορεί να υποκαταστήσει τη δια ζώσης εκπαίδευση. Η επικοινωνία μέσω τεχνολογικών μέσων μπορεί φαινομενικά να διευκολύνει τους ανθρώπους, αλλά είναι και μερικώς απρόσωπη. Η οπτική επαφή και η αλληλεπίδραση σε φυσικό χώρο δεν μπορεί να αντικατασταθεί απόλυτα με την ψηφιακή παρουσία.

Προκειμένου να είναι επιτυχής η επικοινωνία εκπαιδευτή και εκπαιδευομένων είναι μείζονος σημασίας η μεταξύ τους διάδραση. Για το λόγο αυτό η διεύθυνση του Π.Μ.Σ. καλεί όλους τους φοιτητές να έχουν ανοιχτές τις κάμερες για διευκόλυνση αυτής της  διάδρασης καθώς και να συμμετέχουν ενεργά στα διαδικτυακά μαθήματα με ερωτήσεις και σχόλια.


The role of gut microbiome in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus

J Obstet Gynaecol, 2021 Oct 25;1-7. doi: 10.1080/01443615.2021.1959534. Online ahead of print.

Ermioni Tsarna, Panagiotis Christopoulos

Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common metabolic disease associated with maternal and foetal complications; gut microbiome might participate in GDM pathogenesis. Possible biological links include short chain fatty acids, incretin hormones, bile acids homeostasis and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma deficiency. Gut microbiome differs in patients with GDM even in early pregnancy, but no differences are observed five years postpartum. Patients have enriched Verrucomicrobia phylum, Christensenellaceae and Lachnospiraceae families, Haemophilus, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Collinsella and Ruminococcus genera during pregnancy. Clostridiales order, Alistipes, Faecalibacterium, Blautia, Eubacterium and Roseburia genera are depleted. However, there is great heterogeneity in the reviewed studies and scientific data on the use of gut microbiome characteristics and related biomarkers in GDM risk stratification and diagnosis are scarce. Probiotics and synbiotics have been tested for prevention and treatment for GDM with limited efficacy. Future studies should explore the effect of probiotics administration at first trimester of pregnancy and their value as adjuvant therapy.

Keywords: GDM; Gestational diabetes; gut microbiome; probiotics; synbiotics.


Placental CRH as a Signal of Pregnancy Adversity and Impact on Fetal Neurodevelopment

Front. Endocrinol., 02 August 2021 |

Ifigeneia Kassotaki, Georgios Valsamakis, George Mastorakos, Dimitris K. Grammatopoulos

Abstract: Early life is a period of considerable plasticity and vulnerability and insults during that period can disrupt the homeostatic equilibrium of the developing organism, resulting in adverse developmental programming and enhanced susceptibility to disease. Fetal exposure to prenatal stress can impede optimum brain development and deranged mother’s hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis) stress responses can alter the neurodevelopmental trajectories of the offspring. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and glucocorticoids, regulate fetal neurogenesis and while CRH exerts neuroprotective actions, increased levels of stress hormones have been associated with fetal brain structural alterations such as reduced cortical volume, impoverishment of neuronal density in the limbic brain areas and alterations in neuronal circuitry, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission and G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling. Emerging evidence highlight the role of epigenetic changes in fetal brain programming, as stress-induced methylation of genes encoding molecules that are implicated in HPA axis and major neurodevelopmental processes. These serve as molecular memories and have been associated with long term modifications of the offspring’s stress regulatory system and increased susceptibility to psychosomatic disorders later in life. This review summarises our current understanding on the roles of CRH and other mediators of stress responses on fetal neurodevelopment.

Keywords: Assisted reproductive techniques; Diabetes mellitus; Neonatal complications; Pregnancy outcome.