Validation of the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire in Greek and psychosocial characteristics of pregnant women with fear of childbirth

Gourounti K1, Kouklaki E2, Lykeridou K3

1 Department of Midwifery, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Greece, 2 Rea Maternity Clinic, Greece

BACKGROUND:Fear of childbirth has been found to be a factor that influences women’s decision about their choice of delivery. The investigation of psychological factors that relate to fear of childbirth as well as the validation of the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire (CAQ) can help identify pregnant women with high fear of childbirth. AIM: This study aimed to (a) translate and validate the Childbirth Attitude Questionnaire in Greek and (b) explore how fear of childbirth was related to childbirth self-efficacy, state anxiety, depression, neuroticism, self-esteem and optimism. METHODS: 145 nulliparous pregnant women, in late pregnancy, attending routine antenatal visit in a private maternity clinic participated. All participants completed the CAQ (fear of childbirth) and other self-report questionnaires that measured childbirth self-efficacy, self-esteem, optimism, neuroticism, state anxiety and depressive symptomatology. Factor structure was investigated using principal axis factoring. Cronbach’s α was used to measure internal consistency reliability. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between all study variables, followed by multiple linear regression. FINDINGS: The factor analysis suggested the existence of one-factor structure. Construct validity was confirmed by computing correlations between the CAQ and childbirth self-efficacy, self-esteem and optimism. Multivariate analysis showed that childbirth self-efficacy, self-esteem and optimism were negatively and significantly associated with fear of childbirth. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The Greek version of the CAQ is a reliable and valid measure. The clinical use of CAQ may enable midwives and other health care professionals to identify pregnant women with low childbirth confidence and to provide information and support.

Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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