Front Horm Res. 2019;53:135-161. doi: 10.1159/000494909. Epub 2019 Sep 9.
Kostakis EK, Gkioni LN, Macut D, Mastorakos G
Menopause is the period of a woman’s life that is characterized by the permanent cessation of menses associated to hormonal changes, of which the most important is the decrease of estrogen levels. Following menopause, the concentrations of circulating androgens decrease. However, increased concentrations of luteinizing hormone induce androgens secretion from the ovaries and presumably from the adrenal glands. Peripheral conversion of androgens results to the circulating hormonal androgen profile. Some pathological conditions are associated with greater concentrations of androgens after menopause than in controls, with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) being the commonest. These conditions can be distinguished in non-tumorous (adrenal or ovarian) or functional and tumorous (adrenal or ovarian benign or malignant) masses. Apart from PCOS, other non-tumorous (adrenal or ovarian) causes of hyperandrogenism in post-menopausal women are obesity, non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH), endocrinopathies, such as Cushing disease or acromegaly; ovarian hyperthecosis, drug use or abuse. Tumorous (adrenal or ovarian) causes include adrenal cortical cancers, adrenal benign adenomas and even incidentalomas, or ovarian tumors such as the sex-cord stromal ovarian tumors and metastases in the ovary. The diagnosis of hyperandrogenism is made through medical history, clinical examination, and laboratory tests. Total testosterone concentration of 150 ng/dL can be used at first to distinguish a malignant from a benign cause of hyperandrogenism. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentration may support adrenal source of androgens. Imaging techniques are used to localize the source of androgens: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the adrenals and transvaginal ultrasound or MRI for the ovaries. Finally, treatment (etiologic and symptomatic) and long-term effects of hyperandrogenism are developed in this chapter.cores, in comparison to children and adolescents in the C group. In the E group, a statistically significant positive linear correlation was found between DTSQs score and percentages of normoglycemias and a statistically significant negative correlation between changes in percentages of normoglycemias (Δnormoglycemias) and changes in HbA1c (ΔHbA1c). Conclusions: The use of the mobile application Euglyca® contributes to the improvement of glycemic control and treatment satisfaction of children and adolescents with T1DM.