Identification of Genetic Causes in Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) Syndrome: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Varvara Ermioni Triantafyllidi, Despoina Mavrogianni, Andreas Kalampalikis, Michael Litos, Stella Roidi and Lina Michala

Abstract: Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is a congenital condition characterizing females with absence of the uterus and part of the vagina. Several genetic defects have beencorrelated with the presence of MRKH; however, the exact etiology is still unknown due to the complexity of the genetic pathways implicated during the embryogenetic development of the Müllerian ducts. A systematic review (SR) of the literature was conducted to investigate the genetic causes associated with MRKH syndrome and Congenital Uterine Anomalies (CUAs). This study aimed to identify the most affected chromosomal areas and genes along with their associated clinical features in order to aid clinicians in distinguishing and identifying the possible genetic cause in each patient offering better genetic counseling. We identified 76 studies describing multiple genetic defects potentially contributing to the pathogenetic mechanism of MRKH syndrome. The most reported chromosomal regions and the possible genes implicated were: 1q21.1 (RBM8A gene), 1p31-1p35 (WNT4 gene), 7p15.3 (HOXA gene), 16p11 (TBX6 gene), 17q12 (LHX1 and HNF1B genes), 22q11.21, and Xp22. Although the etiology of MRKH syndrome is complex, associated clinical features can aid in the identification of a specific genetic defect.

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