C. Ampatzis, S. Zervoudis, G. Iatrakis, G. Mastorakos
Contraceptives are widely used in our times and a lot of research has been conducted to clarify their impact on Bone Mineral Density. Combined Oral Contraceptives (COCs) may be detrimental to the BMD of adolescents. However, low-dose are more protective than ultra-low-dose COCs. When it comes to premenopause and perimenopause, COCs have no impact on BMD in women with good ovarian function and no estrogen deficiency. In women with impaired ovarian function, it seems that COCs have a positive influence on BMD. Progestin onlypills may not affect BMD, but further research is needed. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (DMPA) has a negative impact, especially in adolescents, which is duration related but evidence shows that BMD recovers after discontinuation. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) has no impact on BMD.