Novel Approaches in Addressing Ovarian Insufficiency in 2019: Are We There Yet?

Konstantinos Sfakianoudis, Anna Rapani, Sokratis Grigoriadis, Dimitra Retsina, Evangelos Maziotis, Petroula Tsioulou, Polina Giannelou, Konstantinos Pantos, Michael Koutsilieris, Nikolaos Vlahos, George Mastorakos, and Mara Simopoulou

Ovarian insufficiency is described as a multifaceted issue typically encountered in the field of assisted reproduction. The three main identified diagnoses of ovarian insufficiency include premature ovarian failure (POF), poor ovarian response (POR), and advanced maternal age (AMA). Patient heterogeneity in the era of individualized medicine drives research forward leading to the emergence of novel approaches. This plethora of innovative treatments in the service of adequately managing ovarian insufficiency is called to undertake the challenge of addressing infertile patients exploring their reproductive options. This review provides an all-inclusive presentation and critical analysis on novel treatments that have not achieved routine clinical practice status yet, but have recently emerged as promising. In light of the lack of randomized controlled trials conveying safety and efficiency, clinicians are left puzzled in addressing the “how” and “for whom” these approaches may be beneficial. From ovarian injection employing platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or stem cells to artificial gametes and ovaries, ovarian transplantation, and mitochondrial replacement therapy, this descriptive review provides insight toward assisting the practitioner in decision making regarding these cutting-edge treatments. Biological mechanisms, invasiveness levels, efficiency, as well as possible complications, the current status along with bioethical concerns are discussed in the context of identifying future optimal treatment.

ovarian insufficiency, premature ovarian failure, poor ovarian response, stem cells, platelet rich plasma, mitochondria replacement therapy